In vertebrates, the notochord arises from the dorsal organiser. Originally identified by Spemann and Mangold in amphibians, the dorsal organiser is a region of a vertebrate gastrulae that, when transplanted into prospective lateral or ventral regions of a host embryo, induces the formation of a second embryonic axis, while only contributing to notochord and prechordal mesendoderm (Harland and Gerhart,1997; Spemann and Mangold,1924). In amphibians, this region is the dorsal lip of the blastopore. In other species, homologous structures have been found: the embryonic shield of teleost fish, Hensen's node in the chick and the node of mouse embryos all possess essentially the same activities as Spemann and Mangold's dorsal organiser (Beddington,1994; Oppenheimer,1936; Waddington,1930). The functions and activities of the dorsal organiser are complex and have been discussed in detail elsewhere(Harland and Gerhart, 1997). For this discussion, it is useful to consider the relationship between specification of notochord fate and dorsal organiser activities. First,however, what are the distinct morphological stages that the dorsal mesendoderm progresses through on its way to becoming a mature notochord
This module will allow you to learn and implement your anatomy knowledge and relate it to physiology and pathologies through the discovery of current or past anatomy breakthroughs according to your interest. Using this knowledge, you will explore the key concepts and principles that underpin human diseases, learn about research methods and explain the basis of diseases and scientific discoveries of your choice. Additionally, we aim to develop new teaching tools using current anatomy resources. The main focus is to develop these learning tools as a student-centred teaching tool that incorporates your research on specific areas of anatomy, physiology, pathology and scientific discoveries. In doing so, you will obtain wide-arching knowledge surrounding the topic of your choice, which you will present continuously to your peers. You will attend extensive lectures/seminars and workshops that provide the anatomical background for understanding the overarching principles and concepts of the organisation of the structures of the human body and their applications in clinical context. In addition, this module aims to enhance your presentation and feedback skills through student-led seminars and the development of new anatomy teaching resources. Developing key transferrable scientific skills is central to this module and you should be prepared to work effectively and collaboratively with peers.
You will conduct a literature research of scientific discoveries that relate to anatomy and the function of the human body. You will obtain wide-arching knowledge surrounding the topic of your choice, which you will present continuously to your peers. You will engage with extensive lectures, seminars, practical laboratory sessions and workshops that provide the anatomical background for understanding the overarching principles and concepts of the organisation of the structures of the human body and their applications in clinical context. 1e1e36bf2d